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Ablation: removal or destruction.
Adipocyte: a connective tissue cell specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat. Such cells are bloated with globules of triglycerides, the nucleus being displaced to one side and the cytoplasm seen as a thin line around the fat droplet.
Adipo Derived Stem Cell: adult stem cells derived from adipose tissue.
Adipose: fibrous connective tissue with large numbers of fat-storing cells.
Adult Stem Cells (ASC): stem cells taken from adult tissue (i.e. fat, bone marrow, skin, muscle etc.). Adult stem cells are undifferentiated/ unspecialized cells found in a differentiated or specialized tissue.
Allogeneic: in reference to transplantation biology, denotes cells or tissues that are of the same species but the donor and recipient are different individuals.
Alpha Hydroxy Esters: a collection of bioresorbable polymers, such as polylactides (PLa), and polyglycolides (PGA).
Amorphous: without an ordered structure; not crystalline.
Anterior: the front of a body; situated toward the front or facing forward.
Autologous: in reference to transplantation biology, the donor and the recipient of the cells or tissue are the same person. Tissue originating from within one's self. Derived from an organism's tissue or DNA.
Bio: (combining form from Greek bios mode of life) living organism or tissue.
Biodegradable: the natural ability of a chemical substance to be broken down into less complex compounds.
Biologics: (1921); pertaining to living organisms and their products; any preparation made from living organisms and used as diagnostic, preventative or therapeutic agents.
Biomaterial: (1966) material suitable for use in implants that come in direct contact with living tissue.
Biomechanics: the mechanics of biological and especially muscular activity (as in locomotion or exercise) and properties of biomaterials and biologic tissues.
Biomedical: of, relating to, or involving biological, medical, and physical science.
Bioresorbable: the act of absorbing by the loss of substance in a living tissue and elimination through natural bodily pathways or filtration.
Bioresorbable Polymer: a polymer that is broken down and is eliminated in the body by excretion or through metabolic pathways.
Biosurgery: the utilization of biomaterials and biotherapeutics, encompassing the entire spectrum of surgical disciplines.
Biotechnology: the biological science when applied in genetic engineering; the study of the relationships between living organisms and machinery.
Blastocyst: a fertilized egg (zygote) becomes a blastocyst before differentiation into three germ layers.
Blastocyte: an embryonic cell that has not yet become differentiated.
BMPs: Bone Morphogenetic Proteins. A group of related proteins originally identified by their presence in bone-inductive extracts of demineralized bone.
Bone Graft: the transplantation of a piece of bone from one part of the body to another.
Bulk Hydrolysis: the chemical decomposition of a compound by water.
Cannula: hollow tube inserted to remove tissue or fluid from a duct or cavity of the body.
Cardiomyocytes: heart muscle cells.
Cell Line: a population of cells grown in culture, which are totally derived from, and genetically identical to, a single common ancestor cell. A permanently established cell culture that will proliferate indefinitely given appropriate fresh medium and space.
Cervical Vertebra: one of the first seven segments of the upper spinal column, relating to the neck.
Chondrocytes: cartilage cells.
Chromosomes: the carriers of genes, the hereditary information that resides in DNA.
Cloning: somatic cell nuclear transfer; the process of artificially producing Embryonic Stem Cells by removing DNA from an unfertilized egg and replacing DNA from the individual to be cloned.
Close Blood Relative: a first degree blood relative, a parent, child, or sibling.
Committed Stem Cells: cells derived from the pluripotent stem cell that can give rise to only some lineages.
Compressive Strength: the ability of a material to resist breaking or being flattened if it is pushed or squashed.
Copolymer: a type of polymer formed by the polymerization of two or more different monomers.
Creep: the deformation of a metal or solid material as a result of load or stress over time.
Crystalline: In the case of polymers, a material that, on a molecular level, has regions where the polymer chains are packed closely together into an ordered or crystal lattice structure.
Cytoplasm: protoplasm (clear aqueous fluid) surrounding the nucleus of a cell.
Device: an item other than a drug that has application in the healing arts; term usually restricted to items used in on, in or by the patient.
Differentiation: the process in development of a multicellular organism by which cells become specialized for a particular function.
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): the molecule that carries the genetic information for cells and is a major component of chromosomes, found primarily in the nucleus of a cell.
DSC: differential scanning calorimetry = method to measure the thermal characteristics of a materials; including melting and glass transition temperatures, and crystallinity.
Ectoderm: the outermost embryonic germ layer containing cells that give rise to epidermal and neural tissue. The other two layers are mesoderm an endoderm.
Embryonic Stem Cells (ESC): stem cells taken from human embryos.
Endoderm: the innermost embryonic germ layer containing cells that give rise to the respiratory tract, digestive tract, bladder and urethra.
External Ultrasound-assisted Lipoplasty (E-UAL): external ultrasound waves that may alter fat cells.
Family Relative: a first degree blood relative, a parent, child, or sibling.
Fatigue Testing: testing of a material to understand the effects of repeated stresses on that material.
Fetal Stem Cells: stem cells taken from aborted fetal tissue.
Fibroblasts: cells that give rise to connective tissue and produce scars in wounds.
Fusion: the surgical joining of two or more vertebra.
Gene: a segment of a DNA molecule containing all the information necessary for synthesis of a product. The biological unit of heredity, self-reproducing, and transmitted from parent to progeny.
Gene Expression: the full use of the information in a gene via transcription and translation leading to production of a protein and hence the appearance of the phenotype determined by that gene.
Gene Targeting: the alteration of gene expression for a particular therapeutic application by inserting DNA into specific sites or genes within the genome of selected cells.
Genetic Engineering: the process of altering an organism or cell's genetic material in order to change its ability to function or to produce new gene products.
Genome: the total set of genes carried by an individual or cell.
Germ Cells: sperm and egg cells.
Germ Layers: three primary layers of embryonic tissue: endoderm (internal layer), mesoderm (middle layer), and ectoderm (external layer).
Glass Transition Temperature: the temperature below which the material is "glassy" or rigid and above which is "rubbery" or ductile.
Glycolic Acid: a two-carbon organic acid (C2H4O3). Glycolic acid is a constituent of sugar cane and found in unripe grapes and sugar beets (a.k.a. glycolate or hydroxyacetic acid or hydroxyethanoic acid).
GPC: gel permeation chromatography; measures molecular weight and properties. (a.k.a. size exclusion chromatography (SEC)).
Graft Containment: holding a graft in place until a tissue defect is repaired.
Hematopoietic: pertaining to or effecting the formation of blood cells. Giving rise to the cellular elements of the blood (e.g., white blood cells, red blood cells, platelets).
Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC): cells that give rise to distinct daughter cells, one a replica of the stem cell, one a cell that will further proliferate and differentiate into a mature blood cell. These cells are found in blood (adult and umbilical cord) and bone marrow.
Hepatocytes: epithelial cell of liver.
hESCS: human embryonic stem cells. Self-renewing cells (telomerase positive), derived from in vitro fertilized blastocysts.
Heterologous: derived from the tissues or DNA of a different species.
Histocompatible: indicates tissue compatibility between donor and recipient, where a graft or transplant is accepted and remains functional.
Histocompatible human embryonic stem cell: an embryonic stem cell that has been produced by cloning or altered by genetic engineering to render it matched to a recipient so that, upon differentiation and transplantation an immune response is not triggered.
Homologous: derived from tissue or DNA of a member of the same species.
Homologous Function: use for the normal function of the cell or tissue, and, for structural tissue, use for a structural purpose in a location of the body where such functional purpose normally occurs.
Hydroxyapatite: a natural calcium containing mineral present in the structure of bones and teeth.
Iliac Crest: top portion of the ileum (hip bone); one of the three bones which make up the pelvis.
Immunosuppressive Therapy: drug therapy to suppress a destructive immune response to transplanted tissue.
Implant: in surgery a material inserted or grafted into an organ or structure of the body.
Inherent Viscosity: one of many polymer characteristics; is an indication of the molecular weight of the polymer; one of the characteristics analyzed by polymer scientists.
In Situ: in position.
In Vitro: in an artificial environment. General term for cells in culture as opposed to in a multicellular organism.
In Vivo: within the living body.
Islet cells: cells of the pancreas that produce and secrete insulin. Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus is caused by the degeneration of these cells.
Karyotype: the complete set of chromosomes of a cell or organism.
Kreb's Cycle: the final common catabolic pathway for the oxidations of fuel molecules; polylactide is metabolized by the Kreb's Cycle. (a.k.a. citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle).
Lactic Acid: a three-carbon organic acid (C3H6O3). L-lactic acid is found in muscle and blood; D-lactic acid is produced by fermentation; and DL-lactic acid is found in the stomach. (a.k.a. lactate, or 2-hydroxy propanoic acid).
Lipoaspirate: the material (fatty tissue and fluid) that is withdrawn with a negative pressure apparatus (syringe or suction device).
Liposuction or Lipoplasty: removal of body fat from the contours of the body via a suction device.
Lumbar: pertaining to the part of the body between the thorax and the pelvis.
Lumbar vertebra: one of the five largest segments of the vertebral column, located in the lower portion of the spine.
Melt processing: a collection of polymer processing techniques that involve a polymer raw material subjected to increased temperatures and/or pressures resulting in a desired end product.
Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC): stem cells found in bone marrow that arise from the mesenchyme.
Mesenchyme: embryonic tissue of mesodermal origin.
Mesoderm: the middle of three embryonic germ layer containing cells that give rise to connective tissue (including that of the dermis), bone, cartilage, muscle, blood and blood vessels, lymphatic system, kidney and gonads.
Metabolic Use: for systemic effect.
Minimal Manipulation: processing that does not alter the biological or relevant functional characteristics of cells or tissue.
Molecular Weight: one of many polymer characteristics; the ratio of mass of a molecule to the unified atomic mass unit; abbreviated as Mw or Mn.
Monomer: a small molecule which can undergo polymerization to form longer polymer molecules (the repeating unit of a polymer).
More-Than-Minimal Manipulation: processing that alters the biological or relevant functional characteristics of cells or tissue.
Morphology: refers to the form and function of a cell or organism.
Multilineage: capable of differentiating into multiple types of cells.
Multipotent Stem Cell: a cell capable of producing a variety of cells and tissues.
Myocyte: muscle cell.
Neuron/Neurocyte: nerve cell.
Non-homologous Function: use for other than the normal function of the cell or tissue, or for structural tissue, use for a structural purpose in a location of the body where such functional purpose does not normally occur.
Nonradiopaque: permitting the passage of x-rays, therefore not visible on an x-ray image.
Normal Force: a force applied to a material (or structure) in a direction perpendicular to the surface; normal force can be compressive or tensile.
Nucleus: the central pat of a cell that contains the cell's hereditary material and controls its metabolism, growth and reproduction.
Osteoblast: cells that give rise to bone.
Peripheral Blood: circulating blood (in contrast to, for example, blood in bone marrow).
PGA: polyglycolic acid a polymer composed exclusively of repeating glycolic acid monomer units in the polymeric backbone or formed from glycolide precursors (a.k.a. polyglycolide).
Phenotype: all the observable characteristics of a cell or organism.
PLA: polylactic acid a polymer composed of lactic acid monomer units in the polymeric backbone generally synthesized by condensation methods and result in lower molecular weight polymers.
PLa: A more technically correct abbreviation for the resorbable polymer made from lactide precursors (general term, without specification of stereochemical or isomeric configuration) (a.k.a. polylactide).
Plasticity: the ability of a stem cell from one adult tissue to generate the specialized cell types of another tissue. (also "unorthodox differentiation" or "transdifferentiation").
PLDLa or Poly(D,L-lactide): MacroPore's abbreviation for a copolymer of 70:30 Poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide)a polymer made exclusively from (D,L-lactide) monomer precursors or containing repeating D,L-lactic acid monomer units in the polymeric backbone.
PLLa or Poly(L-lactide): a polymer made exclusively from (L-lactide) monomer precursors or containing repeating L-lactic acid monomer units in the polymeric backbone.
Pluripotent Stem Cell: a term used to describe stem cells that can form all cells and tissues of the body, but not the surrounding tissues needed for fetal development.
Poly(lactide-co-glycolide): copolymer that contains both lactic acid and glycolic acid.
Polymer: a compound formed by linking a number of monomers or small molecules; for example one of MacroPore Biosurgery's polymers is a copolymer of two monomers: L-lactide and D,L-lactide.
Posterior: the back part of a structure, toward the back.
Power-assisted Lipoplasty (PAL): a cannula with a back and forth motion of the tip passes through tissue to suction out fat and fibrous or scarred tissue with reduced effort.
Processed Lipo-aspirate: the raw material obtained from liposuctioned fat many important cell types including adipo-derived stem cells (ADSC).
Progenitor or Precursor Cell: a partially specialized cell (parent cell) that can give rise to related cells, but not a wide variety of cell types.
Proliferation: the reproduction or multiplication of similar forms, especially of cells. PRP: platelet rich plasma, a concentration of blood constituent cells.
Quiescent Stem Cell: a stem cell that is not currently undergoing repeated cell cycles but that might be stimulated to do so at a later time.
Radiopaque: not permitting the passage of x-rays, therefore visible on an x-ray image.
Regeneration: the natural renewal of a structure, as of a lost tissue or part.
Remodeling: a continuous cyclical process by which bone maintains a dynamic steady state through resorption and formation. The term is often associated with the biological remodeling of bone to applied stress known as "Wolff's Law"
Reproductive Tissue: semen, ova, embryos.
Reproductive Use: to treat infertility.
Reprogram: the ability of the cytoplasm of an egg cell to enable the adult differentiated cell to return to the embryonic state and once again express all the genes required for the full development of the adult animal.
Resorbable: the ability to absorb.
Resorption: the loss of substance by physiologic means.
Resorption Rate: the designated time period in which a substance resorbs.
Scission: a separation, division or splitting of a polymer chain into smaller chains.
Shear Force: a force applied to a material (or structure) in any direction that is not perpendicular to the surface, (not normal to the surface).
Shear Strength: the ability of a material to resist breaking if it is subjected to a shear force.
Somatic Cell: all cells of the body other than egg or sperm cells.
Stem Cell: an unspecialized cell that is capable of replication or self-renewal, and can develop into specialized cells of a variety of cell types. More commonly referring to a cell that, upon division, produces dissimilar daughters, one replacing the original stem cell, the other differentiating further.
Structural Use: for anatomic reconstruction or repair.
Suction-assisted Lipoplasty (SAL): the traditional method, by which the surgeon removes fat by inserting a small, hollow tube (cannula) connected to a vacuum pressure unit, directing the cannula into areas to be suctioned through tiny incisions.
Surface Markers: proteins that appear on the cell surface. Used to identify differentiated cells derived from stem cells.
Telomerase: an enzyme composed of RNA template and a catalytic protein component, which synthesizes DNA at the ends of chromosome and confers replicative immortality to cells.
Telomere: the end of a chromosome.
Tensile Strength: the ability of a material to resist breaking if it is pulled or stretched.
Torsion: the twisting of a body by the exertion of forces tending to turn one end in an opposite direction of the other end.
Totipotent Stem Cell: a stem cell that can give rise to an embryo capable of full development and live birth. These cells can generate all cells and tissues of the body, but also all extra embryonic membranes and tissues necessary to support development and birth.
Ultrasound-assisted Lipoplasty (UAL): sound waves are transmitted to the tip of the cannula to liquefy fat before it is removed by suction.
Umbilical Stem Cells: stem cells taken from the umbilical cord.
Undifferentiated: not having changed to become a specialized cell type.
Unrelated: someone other than a close blood relative.
VASER®-assisted Lipoplasty (VAL): intermittent, or continuous bursts of ultrasonic energy can be used to break up fat cells which are then removed by suction. (VASER is a registered trademark of Sound Surgical Technologies.)
Wolff's Law: a principal of bone remodeling in which bone will be added or resorbed depending upon the applied loads or stress.
Xenogeneic: literally, of foreign genetic stock; usually applied to tissue or cells from another species.
Zygote: a cell formed by uniting sperm and egg during fertilization (male and female germ cells).